Sports Performance, VO2Max

What we learnt from 750 fitness tests (2): Power, Endurance and VO2Max

[In Part 1 of this analysis of over 750 fitness tests conducted on Revvo, we looked at how metrics of overall fitness (VO2Max, Recovery) correlated with activity, weight and other demographic indicators.]

In this second part, we’re taking a deep dive into some of the performance metrics we collect on Revvo, to better understand how they correlate with each other.

MAX POWER (ANAEROBIC CAPACITY)

Max power is the maximum cycling output, measured in watts that an individual can produce on average over 30 seconds (called a Wingate protocol) and is considered one of the best ways to measure anaerobic capacity / output. I think of this as “sprint power”.

Revvo measures max power by guiding the individual step by step through a ~15 minute fitness test where the target increases progressively until the person reaches exhaustion. (Click here to see how the test works).

Max power was pretty well distributed across the 750+ tests and centered around 300-400w – with men producing on average ~100 watts more than women. Gender differences in max power persisted even after correcting for weight (men produced 5.1 watts / kg on average versus women who produced 4.4 watts/kg) and might reflect underlying differences in fitness levels and body composition.

 

 

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VO2Max and Max Power

VO2Max had a strong positive correlation with max power – both in absolute terms and particularly when adjusted for weight (max power in watts / body weight in kg). Higher aerobic capacity could therefore create a strong foundation to help maximize anaerobic output.

 

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Its also well established that high intensity (anaerobic) interval training is very effective at improving VO2Max. Tabata et al studied the effects of moderate intensity endurance and higher intensity interval training on both VO2Max and anaerobic capacity. The study found that high intensity interval training increased both metrics significantly, whereas moderate intensity endurance training only increased VO2Max (to a lesser degree).

So while VO2Max could improve without increase in anaerobic capacity, it seems likely to improve more when anaerobic capacity is also simultaneously targeted/increased.

Weight and Max Power

Does body weight make a difference to your max power output? Other things being equal, the heavier you are the more power you should be able to produce on a cycle due to sheer gravitational effect. And that’s what the data shows – max power in absolute terms increases with body weight.

 

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However, max power per unit of body weight declines with increase in weight — i.e. heavier you are, less the power produced per unit of your body weight. And max power / kg is a better indicator of performance on the road, particularly when going uphill.

Recovery and Max Power

Could your state of recovery affect your max power output? Turns out it does – doubling your recovery (e.g. from ~5%, which is low to about 10%, which is good), increases max power by around 0.25w/kg – which can make all the difference in a competitive sprint.

Max Power X Recovery

THRESHOLD (ENDURANCE)

Revvo detects the lactate threshold by analyzing the heart rate response to different levels of stress as the individual progresses through an intermittent ramped cycling test.

Lactic acid is produced as a by-product when muscles use glucose as fuel, creating the familiar sensation of “burn”The lactate threshold is the highest intensity at which you can tolerate the amount of lactic acid being produced and can therefore sustain. As a result, the threshold has a ~90% correlation with endurance performance.

Web graphics 3 ThresholdAt intensities above the threshold, there is excess lactic acid produced, slowing you down when you cannot tolerate the “burn” anymore.

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Based on the threshold watts per kilo of body weight, cyclists are typically classified into the following 9 categories. Where Pro are typically national champions and elite are world class.

 

 

The distribution of the Revvo sample is below — with a good spread from Cat 3 (experienced cyclists) to novices.

Threshold Distribution

Threshold and VO2Max

How does VO2Max impact the lactate threshold — in theory the two are semi-independent. High VO2Max is a necessary but not sufficient condition for endurance performance.

And the results confirm that — there is a positive but weak correlation between VO2Max and threshold in absolute terms. The correlation does strengthen when we consider threshold watts / kg but this is still not as high as that between VO2Max and Max Power.

 

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The implication from a training perspective is to focus on the factor that is relatively weak — improving that will deliver the biggest bang for your effort. And to polarize training (mid of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity endurance training) so that is able to target these two systems more directly and effectively.

Threshold and Weight

The relationship between threshold and weight is very similar to that between max power and body weight. In absolute terms threshold output increases with body weight but threshold watts/kg declines fairly significantly as weight increases. A 25lb. increase in body weight is the equivalent of dropping one category in terms of threshold output.

 

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Threshold and Recovery

Low recovery clearly dampens threshold output, very similar in magnitude to the effect on max power.

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MAX POWER AND THRESHOLD

Cycling is a sport that requires both endurance and power (to take on hills) – elite cyclists need to develop both capabilities. So not a surprise that there is a pretty high correlation between the two.

Threshold X Max Power

SUMMARY

Traditionally, studies on performance metrics have been conducted largely amongst population of well trained athletes and as such its hard to see much divergence in these metrics across populations that have been training for long periods of time.

The Revvo sample on the other hand reflects a much broader range of individuals and therefore we are able to see how these metrics perform in less trained individuals / closer to their natural state.

From the perspective of an amateur endurance athlete in particular, it seems very likely that different individuals (even with similar performance levels) may have very different physiological make-ups. And understanding the underlying physiological make-up would allow you to customize the training program — so you’re targeting the area of greatest personal opportunity for improvement.

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Interval Training

Could 10 Minutes of Exercise Make You Fit ?

Study after study shows that we are in denial about a number of things – our weight and our calorie intake both of which we generally tend to under-estimate. But nothing comes close to the amount by which we over-estimate how active we are.

In a 2011 study published in the American Journal of Preventative Medicine, US adults self-reported close to 60 minutes of daily activity everyday (this includes exercise and also other casual activity such as gardening, household chores or walking to the pantry to pick up a chocolate!). However when activity levels were actually measured using an accelerometer turns out we are active for an average of just 9 minutes daily!

Guidelines provided by the American Council of Sports Medicine and endorsed by other leading health organizations suggest 150 minutes / week of moderate intensity activity (i.e. brisk walking or jogging) – which only 9% of US adults actually achieved. This level of activity is considered necessary to maintain / improve fitness.

So how do we resolve this problem ? A team of exercise physiologists from McMaster University, led by Gillen JB looked to see if we could improve our fitness by exercising for just 10 minutes, 3 times a week (Martin Gibala, a co-author to the study is a pioneer in interval training). After completing a 2-minute warm-up, study participants cycled all out for 20 seconds, followed by 2 minutes of recovery where they cycled at a gentle place. This was repeated 2 more times during that session and then finished off with a 3 minute cool down for a total time commitment of 10 minutes per session.

The results were astonishing – within 6 weeks both men & women saw a significant increase in their cardio-respiratory fitness by ~12%.

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Gillen JB, Percival ME, Skelly LE, Martin BJ, Tan RB, et al. (2014) Three Minutes of All-Out Intermittent Exercise per Week Increases Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Capacity and Improves Cardiometabolic Health. PLoS ONE 9(11): e111489. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111489

In addition, they also saw important health benefits – mean arterial pressure (which correlates with blood pressure) decreased by 7%. Insulin sensitivity (important for those with pre-diabetes & diabetes) also improved amongst both groups. 24-hour glucose levels however only dropped amongst men (& not amongst women, which warrants further study).

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This is not the first study to show significant benefits for interval training over continuous exercise – a meta-analysis published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine by Weston et al showed 2x improvement in fitness through interval training compared to moderate intensity continuous exercise. Another review by W Kent in the same publication indicated a 15% increase in fitness within 6 weeks of interval training.

What’s unique in this study is the relatively low time commitment required to achieve this remarkable improvement in fitness and health – a level of commitment that almost everyone should be able to make (with of course brief moments of intense effort). In other words there are no more excuses for not getting fit!


Disclaimer: The content on this blog (and linked websites) is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this blog or linked websites. Reliance on any information provided on this blog is solely at your own risk

Fitness & Blood Pressure

How I Normalized my Blood Pressure via Anaerobic Interval Training

Reproducing the talk that I gave at the Quantified Show & Tell in Boston on how I was able to eventually improve my fitness and blood pressure when I shifted to anaerobic interval training.

SivaRaj_BPFitness

Siva Raj was interested in lowering his blood pressure. With a family history of cardiovascular disease and heart attacks he was worried about slightly elevated blood pressure (pre-hypertension). As someone engaged with understanding and building fitness applications he thought he would be able to lower his blood pressure by staying on track with a regular exercise program that focused on cycling. Interestingly his blood pressure measurement didn’t respond to his constant exercise or weight loss. After reading more research literature about the link between fitness and cardiovascular health Siva decided to change his training to improve his fitness. He decided to incorporate a increased intensity into his routine. After a short period of time he had increases in this fitness and was able to observe the reduction in blood pressure he was looking for. In the video below, filmed at the Boston QS meetup group, Siva explains his methods and talks about how he was able to track his body’s response to different fitness routines.


Disclaimer: The content on this blog (and linked websites) is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this blog or linked websites. Reliance on any information provided on this blog is solely at your own risk.